Papal Artifacts Pope Alexander III: A Bull Signed by Him in 1177, with Additional Signatures of 3 Future Popes

Papal Artifacts Pope Alexander III: A Bull Signed by Him in 1177, with Additional Signatures of 3 Future Popes

Pope Alexander III: A Manuscript Signed in 1177 by Him & 3 Future Popes
Pope Alexander III: A Manuscript Signed in 1177 by Him & 3 Future Popes--Close up of signatures

Father Richard Kunst is most grateful to Professor John Adams for his  expertise in the translations of this Papal Bull, as well as for several other artifacts on this website.  Here are links to his websites:

 

https://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/SV1159.html

https://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/SV1181.html

The  Signatories of This Bull

Pope Alexander III: A Manuscript Signed in 1177 by Him & 3 Future Popes--Close up of signatures

The Signatories of This Bull

This ancient document is signed by Pope Alexander III and three cardinals who became future popes.  They are

Ubaldo Allucingoli, bishop of Ostia, the future Lucius III, who succeeded him.

Alberto di Morra, the future Gregory VIII, a papal legate and, in 1178, (at the time of this document) chancellor.

Giacinto Bobone, the future Celestine III, cardinal deacon, bishop of Santa Maria

(A list of all signatories may be viewed below.)

The Symbols & the Four Important Signatures

The Round Symbol: Contains a cross–which is part of Pope Alexander III’s signature.  Next to it on the right is the name of the Pope.  The whole of it, plus the snake at the end, is the Pope’s signature (along with the cross inside the round symbol).

While signatures are often partly written by scribes and then signed with a symbol (the cross and/or snake in this bull) of the pope and cardinals, in this document there is so much difference among all of the names to be that of a scribe.

The Bene Valete Symbol of Farewell

Alexander III: The Bene Valete Symbol--Farewell

The Bene Valete to the right of the Pope’s signature–a type of monogram which has a B above an E with an N running through the whole of it followed by a second E at the end.

Immediately underneath the Pope’s signature is Ubaldo Allucingoli, the future Lucius III who succeeds Pope Alexander III.  He is the bishop of Ostia and signs, “Ubaldo.”  His signature is preceded by a cross and a snake at the end, all in his own hand.

 

The Second Signature beneath the Bene Valete: the future Celestine III

The Cross & the Snake–part of the signature of Giacinto Bobone, the future Celestine III, also all written in his own hand.

The Fourth Signatory is on the last line–Alberto di Morra the future Gregory VIII whose role resembled the present day Secretary of State–the second in command to Pope Alexander III.

The signatures are not simply the snake images but the whole lines.  The crosses they make (which are all distinctive), The Bene Valete to the right of the Pope’s signature–a type of monogram which has a B above an E with an N running through the whole of it.

Immediately underneath the Pope’s signature is Ubaldo Allucingoli, the future Lucius III who succeeds Pope Alexander III.  He is the bishop of Ostia and signs, “Ubaldo.”  His signature is preceded by a cross and a snake at the end, all in his own hand.

Their names and the snakes constitute what are their signatures.

So, this document is in a class of its own in this Collection in that it contains on one artifact four autographs of popes.  To say it is rare and unique is an understatement!

Further Information Regarding the Date of This Bull

The date is given as MCLXXVII (1177), which falls in the reign of Alexander III (1159-1181). But even so, the date is misleading. Alexander was not at the Lateran, where the document was signed, at any time during 1177. He was in the Po Valley, sometimes at Ferrara, but mostly at Venice, where he had discussions with Frederick Barbarossa with regard to ending the schism.

The schism was finally ended on 29 August 1178, when “Calixtus III” (Cardinal John of Struma) finally surrendered to Pope Alexander.

Alexander does not return to Rome from Venice until 12 March 1178 (which was still 1177 in the Roman calendar reckoning; New Year’s Day was on the Annunciation, March 25). So the document was actually signed on  23 March 1178.  Easter that year was on April 9.

The Names of the Cardinals and Their Titular Churches 

I cite two documents, which together contain them all (John of S. Marco and Peter of S. Susanna are in the second).

  1. Muratori, Antiquitates ItalicaeTomus Duodecimus (Arretii 1778), columns 739-742:

Ego Alexander Catholice Ecclesie Episcopus subscripsi.
Ego Hubaldus Histiensis Episcopus subscripsi.
Ego Johannes Presbiter Cardinalis Sanctorum Johannis et Pauli titulo Pamachii subscripsi.
Ego Boso Presbiter Cardinalis Sancte Pudentiane titulo Pastoris subscripsi.
Ego Jacobus Diaconus Cardinalis Sancte Marie in Cosmydin subscripsi.
Ego Ardicio Diaconus Cardinalis Sancti Theodori subscripsi.
Ego Hugo Diaconus Cardinalis Sancti Angeli subscripsi.
Ego Laborans Diaconus Cardinalis Sancte Marie in Porticu subscripsi.
Ego Rainerius Diaconus Cardinalis Sancti Georgii ad Velum Aureum subscripsi.

Datum Laterani per manum Alberti Sancte Romane Ecclesie Presbiteri Cardinalis [tit. sancti Laurentii in Lucina], et Cancellarii, Nonis Aprilis, Indictione XI, Incarnationis Dominice Anno MCLXXVIII. Pontificatus vero Domni Alexandri Pape III. Anno XVIIII. {April 5, 1178]

Antonio López Ferreiro, Historia de la santa a. m. Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela Tomo IV (Santiago 1901), Apéndices, no. LII pp. 133-134:

Ego Alexander catholice Ecclesie episcopus confirmo.
Ego Hubaldus Hostiensis episcopus conf.
Ego Ioannis presbyter cardinalis sanctorum Iohannis et Pauli tituli Pimachii conf.
Ego Iohannis presbyter cardinalis tituli sancte Anasthasie conf.
Ego Iohannes presbyter card. tituli sancti Marci conf.

Further Information Regarding the Date of This Bull

The date is given as MCLXXVII (1177), which falls in the reign of Alexander III (1159-1181). But even so, the date is misleading. Alexander was not at the Lateran, where the document was signed, at any time during 1177. He was in the Po Valley, sometimes at Ferrara, but mostly at Venice, where he had discussions with Frederick Barbarossa with regard to ending the schism.

The schism was finally ended on 29 August 1178, when “Calixtus III” (Cardinal John of Struma) finally surrendered to Pope Alexander.

Alexander does not return to Rome from Venice until 12 March 1178 (which was still 1177 in the Roman calendar reckoning; New Year’s Day was on the Annunciation, March 25). So the document was actually signed between 15 March (when a document was signed at the Lateran) and 25 March.

Easter that year was on April 9. The month or the day ought to appear in the datary line, right after “indictione xi (11thindiction, which began on 25 September 1177) but does not. 

The Names of the Cardinals and Their Titular Churches 

I cite two documents, which together contain them all (John of S. Marco and Peter of S. Susanna are in the second).

  1. Muratori, Antiquitates ItalicaeTomus Duodecimus (Arretii 1778), columns 739-742:

Ego Alexander Catholice Ecclesie Episcopus subscripsi.
Ego Hubaldus Histiensis Episcopus subscripsi.
Ego Johannes Presbiter Cardinalis Sanctorum Johannis et Pauli titulo Pamachii subscripsi.
Ego Boso Presbiter Cardinalis Sancte Pudentiane titulo Pastoris subscripsi.
Ego Jacobus Diaconus Cardinalis Sancte Marie in Cosmydin subscripsi.
Ego Ardicio Diaconus Cardinalis Sancti Theodori subscripsi.
Ego Hugo Diaconus Cardinalis Sancti Angeli subscripsi.
Ego Laborans Diaconus Cardinalis Sancte Marie in Porticu subscripsi.
Ego Rainerius Diaconus Cardinalis Sancti Georgii ad Velum Aureum subscripsi.

Datum Laterani per manum Alberti Sancte Romane Ecclesie Presbiteri Cardinalis [tit. sancti Laurentii in Lucina], et Cancellarii, Nonis Aprilis, Indictione XI, Incarnationis Dominice Anno MCLXXVIII. Pontificatus vero Domni Alexandri Pape III. Anno XVIIII. {April 5, 1178]

Antonio López Ferreiro, Historia de la santa a. m. Iglesia de Santiago de Compostela Tomo IV (Santiago 1901), Apéndices, no. LII pp. 133-134:

Ego Alexander catholice Ecclesie episcopus confirmo.
Ego Hubaldus Hostiensis episcopus conf.
Ego Ioannis presbyter cardinalis sanctorum Iohannis et Pauli tituli Pimachii conf.
Ego Iohannis presbyter cardinalis tituli sancte Anasthasie conf.
Ego Iohannes presbyter card. tituli sancti Marci conf.

The Complete Latin Translation of  this 1177  Bull
Professor John Adams


https://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/SV1159.html

https://www.csun.edu/~hcfll004/SV1181.html

English Translation to Follow

Alexander ep(iscopu)s servus servorum Dei venerabili fratri Oderisio Pennensi ep(iscop)o eiusq(ue) successoribus canonice substituendis in perpetuum

(2)  Justis votis assensum præbere, justisque petitionibus aures accommodare nos convenit, qui, licet indigni, cultores atque praecones in               excelsa apostolorum principum
(2)  Petri et Pauli specula positi, Domino disponente, conspicimur. Eapropter, dilecte in D(omi)no frater Oderisi ep(iscop)e, tuas rationabiles                 postulationes clemente admittimus et predecessorum
(3)  nostrorum felicis memoriae PP Innocentii Eugenii atque Anastasii vestigiis inherentes: ecclesiam Beatae Mariae Gloriosi Christi, martyris             ac levitae Maximi sub Baati Petri et nostra pro=
(4)  -tectione suscipimus, et presentis scriptu privilegio commmunimus. Statuentes ut quascumque possessiones quaecumque bona eadem ecclesia             inpresentiarum iuste et canonice pos=
(6  -sidentes aut in futurum concessione pontificum, largitione Regum vel principum, oblatione fidelium seu aliis iustis modis, Deo propitio,             poterit adipisci firma ubi .isque succes=
(7)  soribus et illibata permaneant in quibus haec proprius (?) duximus exprimenda vocabulis …tatem ipsam cum omnibus suis pertinentis,             videlicet cum casalibus. Oteto Cese et
(8)  casale Sanctam Johannem d…  … Mezze. castellum quod dicitur collis alius; (villam?) de paternella ..cendum in territorio piscan(a)e             quae dilectus filius noster nobilis vir
(9)  Robertus palatinus comes Lorotella p(ro) anima sua dedit eccl(esia)e v(estr)ae. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Piciano cum ecclesiis                 pertinentibus suis; ecclesiam Sancti Petri de laureto
(10) cum ecclesiis et omnibus suis pertinentibus; ecclesiam S(an)cti Serounis cum ecclesia Sancti Martialis et omnibus aliis ecclesiis suae             plebis. ecclesiam Sancti Paterniam de colle Corumo. ecclesiam Sanctae
(11) Mariae et Sancti Felicis de monte silvano, cum ecclesia Sancti Michaelis et Sancti Johannis. ecclesiam Sancti Leonardi de salinis cum             hospitali suo. ecclesiam Sancti Jacobi de Mazzoclo. ecclesiam Sanctae
(12)  Barbar(a)e de cuntate Sancti Angeli. ecclesiam Sanctae Mari(a)e cum ecclesia Sancti Angeli et Sancti Andreae. et Sancti Antimi cum omnibus         eorum possessionibus. ecclesiam Sancti Egidii cum ecclesia Sancti Bartho=
(13) -lomei et Sancti Petri. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Belforte. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Atria cum ecclesiis omnibus suis pertinentiis.             ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Muscusto cum ecclesiis pertinentibus suis.
(14)  ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de planelle cum ecclesiis et possessionibus suis. ecclesiam Sancti Petri de Cumulo cum ecclesiis et tennentis             suis. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de quana civitate cum ecclesiis  et
(15)  possessionibus suis. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Catimano cum omnibus pertinentibus suis. ecclesiam Sancti Laurentii de fabrica cum             tenementis suis. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de
(16)  Brutuli. ecclesiam Sancti Joannis in balneo. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Podio cum ecclesia Sancti Joannis et Sancti Nicolai et Sancti             Luciae. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Bisteio cum ecclesia Sancti Nicolai et omnibus tenimentis
(17)  suis. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Mirabello. ecclesiam Sancti Juliani et ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Montebello. ecclesiam Sancti Felicis         de Colle Alto. ecclesiam Sancti Georgii de Puliano. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae cum ecclesia Sancti
(18)  Nycolay de Trottis. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de colle Madio. ecclesiam Sancti Joannis. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Scimano. ecclesiam             Sancti Ceciliae de rocca cum ecclesiis et possessionibus suis. ecclesiam Sancti Nycolai de Cupu=
(19)  -lo. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de sigilla. ecclesiam Sancti Petri Adpennense cum ecclesiis et possessionibus suis. ecclesiam Sancti                 Clementis de Balbiano cum ecclesiis et omnibus pertinentibus suis. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de trevio cum
(20)  omnibus pertinentibus suis. ecclesiam Sancti Benedicti decermaniano. ecclesiam Sancti Quirici de Aquilano. ecclesiam Sanctae Luciae ad             collem lauri. ecclesiam Sanctae Mariae de Robiliae. ecclesiam Sancti Georgii adornanum
(21)  cum ecclesiis et omnibus possessionibus suis. ecclesiam Sancti Andreae inflamimano cum tenimentis suis. ecclesiam Sancti Jacobi de                 Bassiano cum hospitali suo et omnibus suis possessionibus. ecclesiam Sanctae Rufinae de
(22)  Aguilano cum ecclesiis et tenimentis suis. ecclesiam Sancti Petri ad fanum. ecclesiam Sancti Laurentii de Meremesulis. ecclesiam Sancti             Angeli de puteo. ecclesiam Sancti Angeli ad murum cum onmibus possessionibus.

(23)  Decernimus ergo ut nulli omnino hominum liceat praefatam ecclesiam temere perturbare, aut eius possessiones auferre, ullas ablatas                 retinere, minuere, aut aliquibus vexationibus fatigare. sed omnia
(24)  integra conserverentur eorum per quorum gubernatione et sustentatione concessa sunt usibus omnimodis profutura, salva Sede Apostolicae             auctoritate. Si qua igitur in futurum ecclesiastica
(25)  secularisve persona hanc nostrae constitutionis pagina sciens contra eam temere venire tentaverit, Se(cun)do t(ert)iove commonita                 sadisfactione congrua emendaverit, potestatis honorisque sui dignitate careat, reamque se divino
(26)  iudicio existere de perpetrata iniquitate cognoscat, et a sacratissimo corpore et sanguine domini et redemptoris nostri Jesu Christi             aliena fiat, atque in extremo examine districte ultioni subiaceat. Cunctis autem eid(em) loco iusta
(27)  servantibus sit pax Domini Nostri Jesus Christi quatenus et hic fructum bonae actionis percipiant apud districtum iudicem praemia aeternae         pacis inueniat.         AMEN.

Ego Alexander apostolicae ecclesiae episcopus. SS

Ego Hubaldus Hostiensis episcopus. SS

Ego Joannes p(res)b(yte)r card(inalis) Sanctorum Johanis et Pauli t(i)t(uli). Pamachum SS
Ego Boso p(res)b(yte)r card(inalis) Sanctae Pudentianae tt Pastoris SS
Ego Joh(anne)s p(res)b(yte)r card(inalis) tt Sancti Marci SS
Ego Petrus p(res)b(yte)r card(inalis) tt Sanctae Susannae SS
Ego Vivianus p(res)b(yte)r card(inalis) tt Sancti Steph(ani) in Celiomonte SS

Ego Jacintus Diac. Cardin. S. Mariae in Cosmidyn SS
Ego Ardicio Diac Cardin Sancti Theodori SS
Ego Hugo Diac Cardin Sancti Angeli SS
Ego Laborans Diac Card Sancte Marie in Porticu SS
Ego Rainerius Diacon(us) Cardinalis S(an)c(t)i Georgii ad Velum Aureum susc(ri)psi. SS

Dat(um) Laterani p(er) manum Alb(er)ti pbri card Sce Rom eccl(esia)e Cancellarii x k(a)l(endas) aprel(is) Indictione XI Incarnationis Dominicae ann(o) M.C.LXXVII. Pontificatus vero Dom(i)ni Alexandri PP III ann xviiii

_________________________________________________________________________

[Santa Maria e San Massimo martyr and deacon is the cathedral of Penne.]

[Note that Cardinal Deacon Rainerius had not been expected to attend the signing meeting, but when he turned up he wrote his own entire line.]

 

No. 4      Privilegiorum confirmatio possessionum Pennen(sis) ecclesiae

        PP Alexandri Tertii

The number refers to the catalogue Inventory of documents in the archive of the cathedral Chapter

 

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You can find information about the cardinals listed at Professor Adams’ websites, listed above.

(For example;  1159, no. 11:   Iohannes, presbiter cardinalis tituli sanctorum Ioannis et Pauli tit. Pamachii [Forcella, Iscrizioni delle chiese 10, p. 6 no. 4 (December 31, 1157)]. In June of 1155 he was one of three cardinals (along with Guido of S. Pudenziana and Guido of S. Maria in Porticu) who were sent to King Frederick with papal mandates, which included a demand for the person of Arnold of Bresica (Boso, “Vita Hadriani”, in Watterich, p. 325). He succeeded Cardinal Julius as Vicar of Rome for Pope Alexander in 1165 [Cardella I. 2, p. 94-96; Watterich, p.399; Archivio 27, p. 392]. He became Archpriest of the Vatican Basilica in 1176 [Kehr, Italia Pontificia I, p. 143 no. 39 (April 30, 1178)].

The Complete English Translation of  this 1177  Bull

“Bishop Alexander, slave of the slaves of God, to his venerable brother Oderisius, Bishop of Penne, and his successors canonically installed, greeting and apostolic blessing.”

“It happens that We offer agreement to your just statements, and our ears are attuned to your just petitions, (We), who granted are unworthy, look upon, with God’s disposition, those who are cultivators and heralds of the leaders of the apostles on high. For those reasons, dear brother Bishop Oderisius, we generously grant your reasonable requests, and those contained in the documents of our predecessors of happy memory, Popes Innocent, Eugenius, and Anastasius, and we take under our protection and fortify with the privilege in this our present document the Church of the Blessed Mary of the Glorious Christ and Maximus, martyr and deacon under Blessed Peter. We ordain that each church will be able to retain whatever possessions and whatever goods they posses justly and canonically at the present time, or will be able to acquire in the future in grants of popes, the generosity of kings or princes, the offerings of the faithful, or other just ways, God willing, and they may remain firm and undamaged for their successors, among which we consider the following things to be included in our words:

-the city itself with all its attachments, namely with its houses;
-Oteto Cese and the large house Saint John de ….. Mezze;
-the castle which is called the “other hill”;
-the villa of Paternella situate4d in the territory of Pescia, which our beloved son the nobleman Robert Lorotella, Count Palatine, gave to your church for his soul.
-the church of S. Maria de Piciano with its attached churches;
-the church of S. Pietro de Laureto with its churches and all of its property;
-the church of Saint Seroun (?) with the church of Saint Martial and all the other churches of its community;
-the church of Saint Paternia de colle Corumo;
-the church of Saint Masry and Saint Felix at Monte Silvano, with the church of Saint Michael and Saint John;
-the church of S. Leonard in the salt pans with its property;
-the church of S. James de Mazzoclo;
-the church of S. Barbara de cuntate Sancti Angeli;
-the church of S. Maria with the church of the Holy Angel and St. Andrew and St. Anthimius, with all their possessions;
-the church of S. Egidius with the church of St. Bartholomew and St. Peter;
-the church of S. Maria de Belforte;
-the church of S. Maria de Atria, with all the churches belonging to it;
-the church of S. Maria de Muscusto with the churches belonging to it;
-the church of S. Maria de Planelle with its churches and possessions;
-the church of S. Pietro de Cumulo with its churches and tenants;
-the church of S. Maria of the city of Quana with its churches and possessions;
-the church of S. Maria de Catimano with all its possessions;
-the church of S. Lorenzo de fabrica with its tenements;
-the church of S. Maria de Brutuli;
-the church of S. John in balneo (Baptistry?)
-the church of S. Maria de Podio with the church of S. John and S. Nicholas and S. Lucy;
-the church of S. Maria de Bisteio with the church of S. Nicholas and all its tenements;
-the church of S. Maria de Mirabello;
-the church of S. Julian and the church of S. Maria de Montebello;
-the church of S. Felix de Colle ALto;
-the church of S. George de Puliano;
-the church of S. Maria with the church of S. Nicholas de Trottis;
-the church of S. Maria de colle Madio;
-the church of S> John;
-the church of S. Maria de Scimano;
-the church of S. cecilia de Rocca, with its churches and possessions;
-the church of S. Nicholas de Cupulo;
-the church of S. Maria de sigilla;
-the church of S. Pietro Adpennense, with its churches and possessions;
-the church of S. Clement of Balbiano with all its churches and properties;
-the church of S. Maria de Trevio with all its possessions;
-the church of S. Benedict de Cermaniano;
-the church of S. Quirico de Aquilano;
-the church of S. Lucy at Laurel Hill;
-the church of S. Maria de Robiliae;
-the church of S. George ad Ornanum, with its churches and all its possessions;
-the church of S. Andrew in Flamimano with its tenements;
-the church of S. Jacob de Bassiano with its hospice and all its possessions;
-the church of S. Rufina of Aguilano with its churches and tenements;
-the church of S. Pietro at the temple;
-the church of S. Lorenzo de Meremesulis;
-the church of S. Angelo de puteo;
-the church of S. Angelo at the wall, with all its possessions.

We decree therefore that it is permitted to no person whatever to rashly disturb the aforementioned church [diocese], or to carry away its possessions, to retain any which have been carried away, diminish, or harass by any sort of vexation; but to preserve everything intact, for the future advantage of those through whose governance and support they have been granted for all sorts of uses, saving the authority of the Holy See.

IF somehow therefore in the future some ecclesiastical or secular person knowingly attempt to act contrary to this constitution of ours, after being warned a second and a third time to change his behavior in a satisfactory manner, he shall be deprived on the power and position of his dignity, and he should know that he is a criminal by divine judgment for the iniquity he has committed, and becomes cut off from the most holy body and blood of our Lord and Redeemer Jesus Christ, and in the last judgment is subject to the extreme penalty. To all who preserve justly the same situation [of the diocese], let the peaco of Our Lord Jesus Christ be theirs, so long as they take to themselves tis fruit of their good action, and find the rewards of an eternal peace from an impartial judge.   AMEN.

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When the text says, “-the church of…”   they probably mean “the parish of”;  
  • Date June 29, 2021
  • Tags Gregory VIII, Lucius III, Pope Alexander III, Pope Celestine III