Biographical Information about Pietro Gasparri:
Pietro Gasparri (1852–1934) was an Italian cardinal who taught canon law at the Catholic Institute in Paris (1879–98) and was apostolic delegate thereafter in South America. After his return he was asked by Pope Pius X to direct the great codification of the canon law, and he was created a cardinal in 1907. In 1914, just after the outbreak of World War I, Pope Benedict XV made Cardinal Gasparri papal secretary of state. Pius XI retained his services, which he brought to a culmination in the Lateran Treaty of 1929, ending the Roman question, establishing an agreement between Italy and the papacy, and setting up Vatican City.
He retired in 1930 and was succeeded by his pupil, Eugenio Pacelli, who later became pope as Pius XII. Gasparri is the author of a widely used catechism.
Papal Artifacts honors the many talents of Pietro Gasparri and the gift of his life to our Church.
The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. Copyright © 2001 Columbia University Press
Here is Father’s Commentary about the rare photo featured here. It includes Pietro Gasparri:
A very significant event for the papacy that occurred in the 20th century was the signing of the Lateran Treaty in 1929.
Up until 1870, the Vatican owned territory that was referred to as the Papal States, which in essence, included the whole central portion of Italy. The Papal States’ territory was first assembled in the 6th century as a means of protection for the Church. These states ceased to exist in 1870 when the empire of Italy, in order to unify it, confiscated the land referred to as the Papal States.
And so from 1870 all the way to 1929, the popes were referred to as ‘the prisoner of the Vatican,’ because they each, in turn, refused to agree to the terms the new nation of Italy made. They did not recognize any authority by Italy over them. In turn, the Vatican was not recognized as a nation. Therefore, once elected pope, he lived and died in literally that small 108-acre enclave that surrounds Saint Peter’s Basilica, because he refused to leave. He claimed to be the head of state, but the state that was surrounding him didn’t recognize him as such.
So between 1870 and 1929, there was no coinage minted and no stamps made. There was nothing official that represented the Vatican City-State as an actual nation. But in 1929, because of growing political pressure, which had been mounting for decades, the nation of Italy and the Vatican together agreed upon terms that constituted what came to be known as the Lateran Treaty. It would have been, in essence, July 4, 1776 for us. It was signed on February 11, 1929 and ratified by Italy on June 7, 1929. It’s the day that the modern day Vatican City-State got its independence and was recognized as a nation.
So the artifact we have here is an original photograph of the signing of the Lateran Treaty. Everybody actually pictured in the photograph signed it—and that included everybody that had a significant role in the development of the Lateran Treaty.
It is an amazing piece and an amazing photo, and the fact that all the signatures are there makes it extraordinary. The signatories include:
Benito Mussolini: his signature is the boldest–a very strong signature on the top right. He signed on behalf of King Victor Emmanuel III.
Pietro Cardinal Gaspari: the Cardinal Secretary of State, who signed on behalf of Pope Pius XI. He is to the left of Mussolini in the center of the photo, wearing a biretta.
Monsigneur Pizzardo: who later was named cardinal. His is the top left signature.
Francesco Pacelli: the lawyer for Vatican City-State, and the brother of the next Pope, Pius XII. He is standing over the left shoulder of Mussolini.
This is a great piece of historical significance. Imagine if we had an image of everybody that signed the Declaration of Independence with their signatures! And so, this is incredible. It really is an historic item in regard to European history, because it’s not just about the Catholic part. It’s that the Vatican City-State was finally recognized as a nation. This historic treaty, signed by the Italian government and the Vatican, restored full political and diplomatic power to the Church. It made the Pope an independent, sovereign ruler of a nation, the papal state.
And so this photograph depicts the actual start of that nation.
A very desirable and very rare item.
Pope Pius XI. Mussolini and Cardinal Gasparri signing Concordat. Mussolini leaving. Pius XI on balcony blessing people. Pius XI leaving Castel Gandolfo. People throwing flowers into path of car. Vatican radio station. Pius XI making first broadcast from Vatican station. Pius XI closing holy door with golden hammer. St. Peters at night. Pius XI blesses crowds at St. Peters. St. Peters as death is announced. Crowds kneeling. Cathedral of Notre Dame. Cuban Cathedral. St. Patrick’s Cathedral. New Pope will be Cardinal Pacelli seen here on U.S. trip in 1936.